An important component of sexual selection arises because females obtain viability benefits for their offspring from their mate choice. Females choosing extra-pair fertilization generally favor males with exaggerated secondary sexual characters, and extra-pair paternity increases the variance in male reproductive success. Furthermore, females are assumed to benefit from 'good genes' from extra-pair sires.
Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg  during sexual reproduction. Competition can occur when females have multiple potential mating partners. Greater choice and variety of mates increases a female's chance to produce more viable offspring.
In this review, we consider the variety of male adaptations to sperm competition MASC that may give rise to sexual conflict—including mate guarding, prolonged copulations, the transfer of large numbers of sperm, and the manipulation of females through nonsperm components of the ejaculate. We then reflect on the fitness economics influencing the escalation of these sexual conflicts, considering the likelihood of females evolving traits to offset the negative effects of MASC when compared with the strong selection on males that lead to MASC. We conclude by discussing the potential evolutionary outcomes of sexual conflict arising from MASC, including the opportunities for females to mitigate conflict costs and the prospects for conflict resolution.
Singh 1 and Hugo F. Hoenigsberg E-mail: bnsingh banaras. Female remating is fundamental to evolutionary biology as it determines the pattern of sexual selection and sexual conflict. Remating in females is an important component of Drosophila mating systems because it affects sperm usage patterns and sexual selection.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Sperm competition the competition among the sperm of different males for fertilization of the eggs of a female has been suggested to be an important component of sexual selection, but no general assessment has been made of this proposition. We used a meta-analytic approach to assess the extensive literature on paternity the proportion of offspring in a focal nest sired by an attending male in birds based on allozyme and molecular techniques.
In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition by guarding females from rival males or in the engagement in sperm competition by increased expenditure on the ejaculate. The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected.
Charles Darwin proposed that all living species were derived from common ancestors. The primary mechanism he proposed to explain this fact was natural selection: that is, that organisms better adapted to their environment would benefit from higher rates of survival than those less well equipped to do so. However he noted that there were many examples of elaborate, and apparently non-adaptive, sexual traits that would clearly not aid in the survival of their bearers. He suggested that such traits might evolve if they are sexually selected, that is if they increase the individual's reproductive success, even at the expense of their survival Darwin
Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection presents the intricate ways in which sperm compete to fertilize eggs and how this has prompted reinterpretations of breeding behavior. This book provides a theoretical framework for the study of sperm competition, which is a central part of sexual selection. It also discusses the roles of females and the relationships between paternal care in sperm competition.
Sperm competition is a form of post-copulatory sexual selection  whereby male ejaculates simultaneously physically compete to fertilize a single ovum. Physiological evidence, including testis size relative to body weight and the volume of sperm in ejaculations, suggests that humans have experienced a low-to-intermediate level of selection pressure for sperm competition in our evolutionary history. Evidence suggests that, among the great apes, relative testis size is associated with the breeding system of each primate species. The volume of sperm in ejaculates scales proportionately with testis size and, consistent with the intermediate weight of human males testis, ejaculate volume is also intermediate between primates with high and low levels of sperm competition.