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Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer — particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk.

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The past four decades have seen a drastic increase in radiation exposure. Today, the average individual receives almost twice the annual dose of radiation compared with This increase is almost entirely due to man-made sources of radiation such as CT scans, x-rays or mammograms, as well as flying, during which people are exposed to cosmic radiation.

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As we swap out old for new, pages will be in transition. Thanks for your patience — please keep coming back to see the improvements. A lack of iodine in the diets of children living in the contaminated region has made them more susceptible to thyroid cancer and iodine deficiency disorders.

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The first is the radiation dose to the thyroid as a result of the concentration of radioiodine and similar radionuclides in the gland. The second is the whole-body dose caused largely by external irradiation mainly from radiocesium. The absorbed dose to the whole body is thought to be about 20 times more deleterious, in terms of late health effects incidence, than the same dose to the thyroid IC

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The Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere in the form of both particulate and gaseous radioisotopes. It is one of the most significant unintentional releases of radioactivity into the environment to present day. The work of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment SCOPEsuggests that the Chernobyl incident cannot be directly compared to atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons through a single number, with one being simply times larger than the other.

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One of the nuclear power plant reactors blew up, releasing large amounts of radiation into the atmosphere. Over radioactive elements were scattered over parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, and a wide area of Europe 1, 2. Because of the massive contamination,people were evacuated and the area around the nuclear plant is unlivable 1.

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Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects.

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The contamination of our environment and of food with artificial radionuclides originates from several sources. First, nuclear powers spread contamination all over the Northern Hemisphere by carrying out more than atmospheric bomb tests from to The peaceful use of nuclear fission brought several accidents in nuclear installations [nuclear power plant NPP ]. Besides the artificial contamination, one has to mention the exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay series.

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Following the April 26, explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in the former Soviet Union, the number of children and teenagers diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer spiked in Ukraine, Belarus and western areas of Russia. Most of the patients developed the papillary subtype of differentiated thyroid cancer. Although this cancer tends to be more aggressive in children than adults, nearly all of the patients tracked in the study responded favorably to treatment. Of this group, 97 percent had cancer spread to the lymph nodes, and 43 percent had cancer metastasize in the lungs.

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