In this article, we present a map of the glacial geomorphology of the Altai andWestern Sayan Mountains, covering an area of almostkm2. Although numerous studies provide evidence for restricted Pleistocene glaciations in this area, others have hypothesized the past existence of an extensive ice sheet. Four landform classes have been mapped: marginal moraines, glacial lineations, hummocky terrain, and glacial valleys. Our mapping reveals an abundance of glacial erosional and depositional landforms.
The Earth is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays, which primarily consist of protons.
Surface exposure dating is a collection of geochronological techniques for estimating the length of time that a rock has been exposed at or near Earth's surface. Surface exposure dating is used to date glacial advances and retreatserosion history, lava flows, meteorite impacts, rock slides, fault scarpscave development, and other geological events. It is most useful for rocks which have been exposed for between 10 years and 30, years [ citation needed ].
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